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With frigid temperatures outside, one of the coziest places to be is in a warm, sweet-smelling kitchen baking, baking, baking.

If you are new to baking sweet yeast breads, here's a quick once-over of basic ingredients and what they do.

• Yeast. This is the beneficial living one-celled organism that leavens the dough and lends its flavor. Find packets of dry, granulated yeast in the baking aisle of the grocery. Of the several ways to incorporate yeast into a dough, I favor the traditional method. Run a large bowl under warm water and dry it. Add a small quantity (usually cup) of warm water, scatter the yeast granules over the surface of the water and then sprinkle 1 tablespoon sugar over the yeast to feed it. The yeast cells eat the sugar and excrete carbon dioxide and alcohol. That's why the yeast soon begins to bubble and foam. This is called “proofing the yeast” because you have just “proved” that the yeast is alive and ready to work its magic. Be aware that yeasts can be killed by heat, and the ingredients used in making dough should never be warmer than lukewarm.

• Flour. Either all-purpose or bread flour can be used. Working, or kneading, the dough develops the protein called gluten, which gives elasticity to the dough, helping it to rise and keep its shape and structure. Because flours vary in their abilities to absorb moisture and develop gluten, bakers give measurements on a relative scale, rather than in exact amounts. While heavy doughs are kneaded by hand on a floured surface, rich soft doughs are beaten in the bowl by hand or electric mixer.

• Milk, sugar, eggs, butter, flavorings and salt give color, richness, flavor and texture.

After a dough is made, it is allowed to rest in a warm place, where it will double in size thanks to the action of the yeast. It has risen enough when it is no longer springy when you poke two fingers into the center. Then you punch the dough down and lightly work it to remove all air bubbles before shaping. Or, if time is an issue, after punching down the dough, cover the bowl and place it in the refrigerator. The dough can be kept there up to two days. It should be punched down each time it rises and brought to room temperature for shaping.

Most filled and shaped coffeecakes should be permitted to rise again on a parchment-covered baking sheet or in greased pans until they have risen to almost double their original bulk.

Fillings and toppings

Filling choices are unlimited. Butter, cinnamon sugar and rum-soaked currants can hardly be improved upon, but some, though not all, prepared fillings are excellentA rule of thumb for filling pinwheel rolls is: 2 tablespoons soft butter, ∑ cup brown or cinnamon sugar and ∑ cup rum-soaked currants or finely chopped walnuts.

• Canned cherry pie filling can be used, but almost all of the thickening goop has to be spooned off and discarded. Buy the best brand you can find.

• Poppy seed and prune lekvar fillings are easily found in better grocery stores.

• Ground-nut fillings such as those used in potica and other Eastern European sweet doughs are excellent, and the food processor makes fast work of the grinding.

Coffeecakes need a finishing touch. Try a simple vanilla icing, drizzle or glaze. For each coffeecake, place about 1∑ cups confectioners' sugar, teaspoon vanilla in a soup plate. Add water just a few drops at a time to make a spreading (thick), drizzling (flowing) or glazing (slow runny) consistency. Add maple flavoring for a flavor punch.

Sweet Roll Dough

cup lukewarm water

2 packages dry yeast

1 tablespoon sugar

cup butter, melted

cup whole milk

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

∑ cup sugar

1 teaspoon salt

3 large eggs, at room temperature, beaten

2 teaspoons cardamom

4 cups flour, plus ∑ cup flour for dusting

Add lukewarm water to a bowl, sprinkle with dry yeast and 1 tablespoon sugar. Melt butter over low heat. Remove from heat and add milk, vanilla, ∑ cup sugar and salt. When the mixture is lukewarm, add to bubbled yeast mixture along with the beaten eggs.

Stir the cardamom into 4 cups flour. Add 2 cups of flour to the yeast mixture. Using a hand-held electric mixer, beat for 4 minutes. Use a timer. It will make a sticky, heavy batter.

Remove the beaters, scrape them and set aside. Add 1 cups more flour to the bowl and mix very well with a wooden spoon until the flour is thoroughly blended into dough.

Cover the dough with greased waxed paper and let rise in a warm place until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour.

Turn dough onto a floured surface and flop it around to coat with flour. Knead lightly, adding just enough flour (about ∑ cup or less) to keep dough from sticking.

Divide the dough into 3 equal portions, about 13 ounces each. Roll each third of the dough into a rectangle about 12-by-10 inches. Proceed to shape the dough. Makes enough for 3 coffee cakes.

Rum-Currant-Cinnamon Buns

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grease an 8-inch round cake pan.

Roll ∑ recipe sweet roll dough into a rectangle 12 by 10 inches. Smear with 2 tablespoons soft butter. Sprinkle evenly with ∑ cup cinnamon sugar. Scatter the surface with ∑ cup currants, soaked in 2 tablespoons warm rum. Starting at the long end, roll up jellyroll style, pinching the end seam. Cut roll into 12 pieces.

Place 3 pieces in the center of the pan. Place the remaining pieces around the sides. Let rise until dough has almost doubled in bulk. Bake for 25 minutes or until nicely browned. Makes 12 buns.

Cinnamon Sugar:

2 cups granulated sugar

2 tablespoons cinnamon

Mix together. Store in a covered jar. Store leftover sugar to sprinkle on toast. Keeps indefinitely. Makes about 2 cups.

Streusel Topping:

cup flour

∑ cup sugar

teaspoon cinnamon

∂ teaspoon salt

5 tablespoons cold unsalted butter, cut into -inch pieces

Put the flour, sugar, cinnamon and salt in a food processor and pulse several times to mix. Scatter the butter over the top and pulse until the mixture resembles fine crumbs. Empty the crumbs into a medium-size bowl and rub between your fingers to make large, buttery crumbs. Set aside until ready to use.

After dough has risen in the pans, gently distribute streusel over the surface. Makes enough topping for 2 8-inch round pans of cinnamon buns.