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NEW YORK – A judge overstepped his authority when he blocked a $285 million settlement between Citigroup Inc. and government regulators over toxic mortgage securities, a federal appeals court panel said Wednesday. The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a decision by Judge Jed S. Rakoff to set a trial date for the case brought by the Securities and Exchange Commission in October 2011.

A three-judge panel said the SEC had demonstrated it would face irreparable harm because the judge refused to reconsider his rejection of the settlement as he set a 2012 trial date. The settlement between the SEC and Citigroup came after the commission accused the bank of betting against a complex mortgage investment in 2007. It said the company made $160 million while investors lost millions.

In November 2011, Rakoff found the deal inadequate and ordered a prompt trial. He said the settlement was “neither fair, nor reasonable, nor adequate, nor in the public interest ... because it does not provide the court with a sufficient evidentiary basis to know whether the requested relief is justified under any of these standards.” Both the SEC and Citigroup appealed. Rakoff criticized the deal in part because it did not require Citigroup to admit wrongdoing.

In a decision written by Circuit Judge Rosemary Pooler, the 2nd Circuit said there was no basis in the law for a judge to require an admission of liability before approving a settlement.