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NEW YORK — Gum seems as appealing as that sticky wad on the bottom of a shoe these days.

It’s not that Americans still don’t ever enjoy a stick of Trident or Orbit, the two most popular brands. They just aren’t as crazy about chomping away on the stuff as they once were, with U.S. sales tumbling 11 percent over the past four years.

No one in the industry can pinpoint a single factor that’s causing the decline — the theories include an unwillingness to shell out $2 or more for a pack in the bad economy or that advertising veered too far from underlining gum’s cavity-fighting benefits. But the biggest reason may be that people simply have more to chew on.

From designer mints to fruit chews, candy companies have invented plenty of other ways to get a sugar fix or battle bad breath and anxiety. The alternatives don’t come with gum’s unpleasant characteristics either, like the question of whether to spit out or gulp the remains. They’re also less likely to annoy parents, co-workers or romantic interests.

“You talk to someone and they’re just chomping on gum,” said Matt Smith, a 46-year-old who lives in Albany and hates gum so much he refers to it only by its first letter. “If you substitute gum for any other food, like mashed potatoes, would you find that acceptable? It’s disgusting.”

While U.S. industry sales may be slumping, Akron-based Ford Gum & Machine says its experience is different.

George Stege, president of the company, said Ford’s sales have grown “substantially” in the past four years, and he credited the addition of Big League Chew to the product lineup. “We have grown Big League Chew sales each of the past three years we have sold it,” he said.

During 2010, Ford Gum acquired the rights to produce and sell Big League Chew under a license with the Rob Nelson Co., and started producing it in early 2011. Before then, the shredded gum sold in pouches had been produced by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Co.

The gum-chewing habit dates as far back as the ancient Greeks but arrived in the U.S. in its modern form in the 1860s, according to Mars Inc., the No. 1 player in the market with its Wrigley unit.

Over the years, gum makers positioned it as a way to “Kiss a Little Longer” in the famous Big Red jingle, quit smoking, curb cravings or just make the chewer happier. Catchy slogans or characters included the “Doublemint Twins” and Orbit’s blonde spokeswoman who ends commercials with “Dirty mouth? Clean it up.”

It popped up in pop culture too. In the 1960s, a genre of music aimed at younger audiences came to be known as “Bubblegum.” In the 1975 movie “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” the silent Chief Bromden speaks for the first time saying, “Mmm, Juicy Fruit” after the character played by Jack Nicholson gives him a stick of the gum. And Janet Jackson played a feisty, gum-chewing beautician in the 1993 film “Poetic Justice.”

But gum’s image as a tasteless habit also stuck, with some high-profile gum chewing only making it worse.

In 2003, Britney Spears gave an interview to CNN where a white piece of gum could be seen floating around her mouth as she fielded questions on a range of topics, including the war in Iraq. Talk show host Wendy Williams has a “gum wall” backstage, where she sticks wads of it before walking out. In one episode, she told Patti LaBelle that she could put her gum on the wall after the singer spit out a wad into her hand.

Such imagery may be why gum is still a no-no in business meetings or first dates, according to Lizzie Post, the great-great granddaughter of etiquette expert Emily Post and co-author of “Emily Post’s Etiquette.”

“My grandmother used to tell me, ‘You look like a cow chewing cud,’” she said.

Gum’s bad image is one reason that alternatives look more attractive. There’s also another perennial complaint: “The flavor runs out too fast,” said Ryan Furbush, a 17-year-old from Sayreville, N.J. who has stopped chewing gum in favor of chewy candies and chocolates.

Since peaking in 2009, U.S. gum sales have fallen 11 percent to $3.71 billion last year, according to market researcher Euromonitor International. That’s even as overall candy sales — including gum, chocolate, mints and licorice — have climbed 10 percent to $31.53 billion.

News Business reporter Matt Glynn contributed to this report.