WASHINGTON – The overturning of Virginia’s gay marriage ban places the legal fight over same-sex unions increasingly in the hands of federal appeals courts shaped by President Obama’s two election victories.
It’s no accident that Virginia has become a key testing ground for federal judges’ willingness to embrace same-sex marriage after last year’s strongly worded pro-gay rights ruling by the Supreme Court. Judges appointed by Democratic presidents have a 10-5 edge over Republicans on the Richmond-based 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, formerly among the nation’s most conservative appeals courts.
Nationally, three other federal appeals courts will soon take up the right of same-sex couples to marry, too, in Ohio, Colorado and California. The San Francisco-based 9th circuit is dominated by judges appointed by Democratic presidents. The Denver-based court, home of the 10th circuit, has shifted from a Republican advantage to an even split between the parties, while the 6th circuit, based in Cincinnati, remains relatively unchanged in favor of Republicans during Obama’s tenure.
U.S. District Judge Arenda Wright Allen’s ruling Thursday, that same-sex couples in Virginia have the same constitutional right to marry as heterosexuals, represented the strongest advance in the South for advocates of gay marriage. She put her own ruling on hold while it is being appealed.
Jon Davidson of the gay rights group Lambda Legal said the “very dramatic” shift in the 4th circuit under Obama was an important reason to sue for marriage rights in Virginia, which also twice voted for Obama.
Judges’ party affiliation is not a perfect predictor of outcomes, even on charged political issues. Still, one consequence of Obama’s two elections has been a change in the composition of the courts. Just over 60 percent of appellate judges were Republican appointees when Obama took office in January 2009, according to Brookings Institution scholar Russell Wheeler. Just over five years later, Democratic appointees hold more than half the seats on appeals courts – a transformation magnified by majority Democrats who changed Senate rules last year to make it harder for the minority party to block the president’s nominees.
Legal experts on the left and right agree that who fills court seats matters. “To be fair, academic studies show that political party affiliation doesn’t affect the run-of-the-mill cases, but it does affect the cases you’re likely to write about,” said Curt Levey, who heads the conservative Committee for Justice.
Five federal district judges have issued pro-gay marriage rulings since the Supreme Court’s decision in Windsor v. U.S. in June that struck down part of the federal anti-gay marriage law. Three of those judges are Obama appointees, one was named by Democratic President Bill Clinton and the other by Republican President George H.W. Bush.