What do Brazil, China and India have in common?
All require American travelers to get a visa. And they are not the only countries.
"A lot of people don't know visas exist, or they think U.S. citizens don't need one," says Diane Kakoz, manager of B&K Express in Southfield, Mich., a passport-visa expediting service.
"A lot of people going to Brazil get to the airport there and get sent back."
A visa is a travel document some nations require in addition to the passport. Getting one usually costs $80 to $140, plus processing fees.
That expense can be a rude shock to individual travelers on a budget. But on a group trip, it is usually an invisible cost folded into the tour price.
"When we went to Vietnam in 2009, Vietnam Battlefield Tours out of San Antonio took care of the visas, and we didn't have a single problem," says Don Alsbro, who runs tours for Michigan veterans. "VBT just put it into the price of the tour."
The most common visas that Kakoz obtains are for China, India and Brazil. Other common visas sought? Vietnam, Nigeria and Russia.
While some visas take weeks to process, Cambodia and Australia offer visas online with near-immediate approval. Some nations let tourists get a visa when they arrive. Others, like Venezuela, accept tourist cards instead, handed out on arriving flights.
Luckily, U.S. tourists can blithely traipse around most of the world with just their passports.
In fact, Americans can travel to 159 nations without a visa. That makes us among the freest travelers in the world.
The people least free to travel without a visa? Afghans.
The reason some nations' travelers need visas and others don't is simple. Richer countries tend to make people from poor or war-torn countries get visas as an extra step to make sure visitors return to where they came from. Poor countries are more likely to admit people from rich countries without visas.
Sometimes, it's political. Experts view Brazil's visa requirement and hefty fee ($140) for Americans as a retaliation for stringent visa requirements and an identical fee that Brazilian tourists must pay to visit the United States.
Whatever the requirements, the biggest mistake that visa seekers make, experts say, is procrastinating.
Applying one month ahead is good. Wait until the week you're leaving, and you'll likely pay a rush fee of up to $200.
Part of the problem is that unless you have a tour operator informing you of a visa need, you may not even know. Tourists, business travelers, students or those who plan to work each need specific visas and should check ahead for the rules (to find out if you need a visa, look up a country at www.travel.state.gov and view "entry and exit requirements"). Even then, the process can be convoluted.
Among visa exceptions and quirks are:
*Russia issues visas only for exact dates. Travelers who don't depart by the last date on their visas can face weeks of delay getting out of the country.
*Cruise passengers stopping in Brazil need visas or they can't get off the ship. Brazil charges $140 for a visa, and it must be obtained ahead of time.
*Even countries that offer visas upon arrival have specific requirements. For instance, Laos charges $35 and will take U.S. dollars but requires two passport-sized photos.
*Payment for the visa and the expeditor processing fee
*In some cases, a letter from your sponsor or trip-provider, plus a contact in-country
*In some cases, a copy of your airline ticket, cruise ticket or itinerary
*In some cases, a driver's license, birth certificate or bank statement