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Q: Where did the Jewish/Christian idea of life after death come from? The Bible seems to teach that death is the complete end of life. Psalm 146:4 reads: “His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth, in that very day his thoughts perish.” Or in Ecclesiastes 9:5: “For the living know that they shall die, but the dead know not anything, neither have they any more a reward, for the memory of them is forgotten.” – D.

A: The idea that we have something in us called a soul that can survive the death of our bodies came from God ... via Aristotle. The period before the 4th century BCE was a time when our spiritual thinking was not informed by philosophical thinking. Stories, not syllogisms, formed and framed our pre-Greek ideas about life and death.

During this prephilosophical time, the Hebrew Bible taught that people are composed of bodies and something else, which was called in Hebrew, nefesh. Nefesh is sometimes translated as soul, but the biblical nefesh was nothing like the later post-Aristotelian idea of the soul, which was called in Hebrew the neshama.

The biblical idea of the nefesh is closer to what we mean by life or life-force. The nefesh was that divine force that made our bodies live, but the nefesh died when the body died, as the biblical passages you cited imply .

After the conquest of Israel by Alexander in 333 BCE, a period called Hellenism began, which brought Greek philosophy into contact with biblical Judaism through the scholar/teachers called rabbis, who, unlike the biblical priestly class, were drawn to Greek philosophy as a new source of divine revelation. The revolutionary Aristotelian ideas that transformed biblical thought were the ideas of matter and form.

Matter was potentiality and form was actuality. Matter was, well, material, and form was an immaterial idea that had the ability to affect matter. A statue of a horse was thus the result of the mysterious interaction of the matter used for the sculpture (wood, clay, stone) and the form of ideal “horseness.”

The rabbis, and later the Christians, transformed matter and form into the religious ideas of body and soul. This allowed them for the first time to teach that our souls survive the death of our bodies and return to God who is, like our souls, purely immaterial. This enabled them to use heaven and hell as the way God would set right the scales of justice, which seem so often askew in this life. It also gave them a personally hopeful teaching that we will not be separated forever from those we love.

All this should remind us that the greatest advances in religious thinking happen only when religious people take seriously what the best representatives of the secular world are learning and teaching about the nature of human existence.

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Q: Every time a person whose life has been “miraculously” saved (in a situation where others have died) attributes their survival to God, aren’t they implying that God CHOSE to save THEM because their lives were somehow more worthy than those of the deceased? – R., Plainview

A: God’s blessings to us are not a zero sum game. Because God blesses us doesn’t mean that God cannot bless others. “Thank you, God” does not mean, “Thank you for not blessing others.” It just means, “Thank you, God, for allowing me to see your blessings and to live a life of gratitude and charity as a way of honoring my debt to your loving kindness.”