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The nation's Catholic bishops will make an important decision this week: Do they want to defend the church's legitimate interest in religious autonomy, or do they want to wage an election year war against President Obama?

And do the most conservative bishops want to junk the Catholic Church as we have known it, with its deep commitment to both life and social justice, and turn it into the tea party at prayer?

These are the issues confronting the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops' administrative committee when it begins a two-day meeting today. The bishops should ponder how they transformed a moment of exceptional Catholic unity into an occasion for recrimination and anger.

The dispute centers on rules requiring contraceptive services to be covered under the new health care law. Obama announced a compromise on Feb. 10 that still mandated contraception coverage, but religiously affiliated groups would neither have to pay for it nor refer its employees to alternatives. These burdens would be on insurance companies.

The compromise was quickly endorsed by the Catholic Health Association. Cardinal Timothy Dolan, the president of the bishops' conference, reserved judgment but called Obama's move "a first step in the right direction."

Then, right-wing bishops and allied staff at the bishops' conference took control. For weeks, Catholics at Sunday Mass were confronted with attacks that, at the most extreme, cast administration officials as communist-style apparatchiks intent on destroying Catholicism.

You think I exaggerate? In his diocesan newspaper, Cardinal Francis George, archbishop of Chicago, wrote: "The provision of health care should not demand 'giving up' religious liberty. Liberty of religion is more than freedom of worship. Freedom of worship was guaranteed in the Constitution of the former Soviet Union. You could go to church, if you could find one. The church, however, could do nothing except conduct religious rites in places of worship -- no schools, religious publications, health care institutions, organized charity, ministry for justice and the works of mercy that flow naturally from a living faith. All of these were co-opted by the government. We fought a long Cold War to defeat that vision of society." My goodness, does Obama want to bring the commies back?

Opposition in the church to extreme rhetoric is growing. Moderate and progressive bishops are alarmed that Catholicism's deep commitment to social justice is being shunted aside in this single-minded and exceptionally narrow focus on the health care exemption. A wise priest of my acquaintance offered the bishops some excellent questions about the church.

"Is it abandoning its historical style of being a leaven in society to become a strident critic of government?" he asked. "Have the bishops given up on their conviction that there can be disagreement among Catholics on the application of principle to policy? Do they now believe that there must be unanimity even on political strategy?"

The bishops have legitimate concerns about the Obama compromise, including how to deal with self-insured entities and whether the wording of the HHS rule still fails to recognize the religious character of the church's charitable work. But before the bishops accuse Obama of being an enemy of the faith, they might look for a settlement that's within reach -- one that would give the church the accommodations it needs while offering women the health coverage they need. I don't see any communist plots in this.